Background: Reinforcement of dental acrylics with fillers has yielded positive results. Different proportions of fillers have been added to strengthen the dental acrylics, but no consensus has been reached.
Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the addition of different concentrations of yttria-stabilized zirconium (YSZ) obtained from the residues generated from the CAD-CAM milling of YSZ on the microstructure and mechanical properties of poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA)-YSZ composites.
Materials and methods: Composite materials with different amounts (0.0 to 70.0% by weight) of recycled YSZ reinforced PMMA resin matrix were produced. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive electron spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) were used for microstructural analysis. Among the mechanical properties, the Vickers microhardness test method for hardness, 2D profilometer for surface roughness and composite densities were evaluated by Archimedes method. Data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a pre-set alpha of 0.05.
Results: Microhardness and density increased until 60% by weight YSZ addition, while surface roughness remained unchanged but increased after 60% by weight YSZ addition. The addition of more than 60% by weight of YSZ caused agglomeration in the microstructures. The mechanical properties of poly-methyl-methacrylate decreased with more than 60% YSZ by weight.
Conclusion: Reinforcement of PMMA with residue zirconia powder will increase the usage chance of residue YSZ powder and provide a safer use of PMMA.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- Maji P, Choudhary RB, Majhi M. Structural, optical and dielectric properties of ZrO2 reinforced polymeric nanocomposite films of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Optik, 2016;127:4848-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijleo.2016.02.025
- Ahmed Omran A, Zainal Arifin A. Effect of Al2O3/ZrO2 reinforcement on the mechanical properties of PMMA denture base. J Reinf Plastic Comp., 2011;30:86-93. https://doi.org/10.1177/0731684410379511
- Gratton DG, Aquilino SA. Interim restorations. Dent Clin North Am., 2004;48:vii-497. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cden.2003.12.007
- Psarri C, Kourtis S. Effect of fiber-reinforcement on the strength of polymer materials for provisional restorations: An in vitro study. J Esthet Restor Dent., 2020;32:433-40. https://doi.org/10.1111/jerd.12586
- Kadiyala KK, Badisa MK, Anne G, et al. Evaluation of Flexural Strength of Thermocycled Interim Resin Materials Used in Prosthetic Rehabilitation- An In-vitro Study. J Clin Diagn Res., 2016;10:ZC91-ZC95. https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2016/20020.8566
- Azevedo A, Machado AL, Vergani CE, et al. Magnani R. Effect of disinfectants on the hardness and roughness of reline acrylic resins. J Prosthodont., 2006;15:235-42. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-849X.2006.00112.x
- Vojdani M, Bagheri R, Khaledi AAR. Effects of aluminum oxide addition on the flexural strength, surface hardness, and roughness of heat-polymerized acrylic resin. J Dent Sci., 2012;7:238-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jds.2012.05.008
- Neppelenbroek KH, Pavarina AC, Vergani CE, Giampaolo ET. Hardness of heat-polymerized acrylic resins after disinfection and long-term water immersion. J Prosthet Dent., 2005;93:171-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2004.10.020
- Vallittu PK, Lassila VP. Effect of metal strengthener’s surface roughness on fracture resistance of acrylic denture base material. J Oral Rehabil., 1992;19:385-91. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2842.1992.tb01580.x
- Vallittu PK. Flexural properties of acrylic resin polymers reinforced with unidirectional and woven glass fibers. J Prosthet Dent., 1999;81:318-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3913(99)70276-3
- Kanie T, Fujii K, Arikawa H, Inoue K. Flexural properties and impact strength of denture base polymer reinforced with woven glass fibers. Dent Mater., 2000;16:150-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0109-5641(99)00097-4
- Gad M, ArRejaie AS, Abdel-Halim MS, Rahoma A. The Reinforcement Effect of Nano-Zirconia on the Transverse Strength of Repaired Acrylic Denture Base. Int J Dent., 2016;2016:7094056. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/7094056
- Ruyter IE, Ekstrand K, Bjork N. Development of carbon/graphite fiber reinforced poly (methyl methacrylate) suitable for implant-fixed dental bridges. Dent Mater., 1986;2:6-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0109-5641(86)80062-8
- Mangal U, Kim JY, Seo JY, et al. Novel Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) Containing Nanodiamond to Improve the Mechanical Properties and Fungal Resistance. Materials (Basel)., 2019;12:3438. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12203438
- Ghaffari T, Hamedirad F, Ezzati B. In Vitro Comparison of Compressive and Tensile Strengths ofAcrylic Resins Reinforced by Silver Nanoparticles at 2% and 0.2% Concentrations. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects., 2014;8:204-9.
- Singho ND, Lah NAC, Johan MR, Ahmad R. FTIR studies on silver-poly (methylmethacrylate) nanocomposites via in-situ polymerization technique. Int J Electrochem Sci., 2012;7: 5596-603.
- Totu EE, Cristache CM, Voicila E, Oprea O, et al. On physical and chemical characteristics of Poly (methylmethacrylate) nanocomposites for dental applications. I. Mater. Plast., 2017;54:666. https://doi.org/10.37358/MP.17.4.4922
- Hamouda IM, Beyari MM. Addition of glass fibers and titanium dioxide nanoparticles to the acrylic resin denture base material: comparative study with the conventional and high impact types. Oral Health Dent Manag., 2014;13:107-12.
- Sodagar A, Bahador A, Khalil S, et al. The effect of TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles on flexural strength of poly (methyl methacrylate) acrylic resins. J Prosthodont Res., 2013;57:15-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpor.2012.05.001
- Gad MM, Abualsaud R, Rahoma A, et al. Effect of zirconium oxide nanoparticles addition on the optical and tensile properties of polymethyl methacrylate denture base material. Int J Nanomedicine., 2018;13:283. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S152571
- Alhavaz A, Rezaei Dastjerdi M, Ghasemi A, et al. Effect of untreated zirconium oxide nanofiller on the flexural strength and surface hardness of autopolymerized interim fixed restoration resins. J Esthet Restor Dent., 2017;29:264–9. https://doi.org/10.1111/jerd.12300
- Basant G, Reddy YG. The effect of incorporation, orientation and silane treatment of glass fibers on the fracture resistance of interim fixed partial dentures. J Indian Prosthodont Soc., 2011;11:45-51. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13191-011-0059-8
- Mallineni SK, Nuvvula S, Matinlinna JP, et al. Biocompatibility of various dental materials in contemporary dentistry: a narrative insight. J Investig Clin Dent., 2013;4(1):9-19. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-1626.2012.00140.x
- Fangqiang FAN, Zhengbin XIA, Qingying LI, et al. ZrO2/PMMA nanocomposites: preparation and its dispersion in polymer matrix. Chin J Chem Eng., 2013;21:113-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1004-9541(13)60448-6
- Siligardi C, Barbi S, Casini R, Tagliaferri L, Remigio V. Recycling of yttria?stabilized zirconia waste powders in glazes suitable for ceramic tiles. Int J Appl Ceram Technol., 2017;14:1236-47. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijac.12702
- Gouveia PF, Schabbach LM, Souza JCM, Henriques B, Labrincha JA, Silva FS, Mesquita-Guimarães J. New perspectives for recycling dental zirconia waste resulting from CAD/CAM manufacturing process. J Clean Prod., 2017;152:454-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.03.117
- Ahmed MA, Ebrahim MI. Effect of zirconium oxide nano-fillers addition on the flexural strength, fracture toughness, and hardness of heat-polymerized acrylic resin. World J Nano Sci Eng., 2014;4:50-57. https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnse.2014.42008
- Zhang XY, Zhang XJ, Huang ZL, et al. Hybrid effects of zirconia nanoparticles with aluminum borate whiskers on mechanical properties of denture base resin PMMA. Dent Mater J., 2014;33:141–6. https://doi.org/10.4012/dmj.2013-054
- Lee SY, Lai YL, Hsu TS. Influence of polymerization conditions on monomer elution and microhardness of autopolymerized polymethyl methacrylate resin. Eur J Oral Sci., 2002;110:179-83. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0722.2002.11232.x
- Ergun G, Sahin Z, Ataol AS. The effects of adding various ratios of zirconium oxide nanoparticles to poly(methyl methacrylate) on physical and mechanical properties. J Oral Sci., 2018;60:304-15. https://doi.org/10.2334/josnusd.17-0206
- Milia E, Cumbo E, Cardoso RJ, Gallina G. Current dental adhesives systems. A narrative review. Curr Pharm Des., 2012;18:5542-52. https://doi.org/10.2174/138161212803307491
- Mickeviciute E, Ivanauskiene E, Noreikiene V. In vitro color and roughness stability of different temporary restorative materials. Stomatologija., 2016;18:66-72.
- International Organization for Standardization (2008) Dentistry--Base polymers--Denture base polymers. ISO 20795-1:2008, Geneve.
- Gain AK, Song HY, Lee BT. Microstructure and mechanical properties of porous yttria stabilized zirconia ceramic using poly methyl methacrylate powder. Scripta Materialia., 2006;54:2081-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scriptamat.2006.03.009
- Puigdollers AR, Illas F, Pacchioni G. Structure and properties of zirconia nanoparticles from density functional theory calculations J Phys Chem., C 2016;120: 4392-402. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b12185