International Journal of Dental Materials <p>International Journal of Dental Materials</p> <p><strong>International Journal of Dental Materials (IJDM)</strong> is an Open Access, International Peer-Reviewed journal published quarterly. The journal publishes original scientific research papers, short communications, review articles, case reports and letters to the editor. The journal is dedicated to propagating progressive knowledge and evolving information to achieve a broad&nbsp;readership from basic, clinical and public health researchers to dental professionals and preachers.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> IJDM en-US International Journal of Dental Materials 2582-2209 <p>This work is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Fiber-reinforced composites in endodontic practice: a review <p>Fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs) are a group of non-metallic biomaterials characterized by good mechanical properties, such as high fatigue resistance and fracture toughness growing in popularity in several dental applications. FRCs are a combination of two materials: the reinforcing phase in the form of fibers, which are embedded into the other material, called the matrix phase. Factors influencing the properties of FRCs include fibre properties versus polymer matrix properties, impregnation of fibres in the resin, adhesion of fibres to the polymer matrix, quantity and direction of fibres, and location of the fibre-rich phase in construction. The most commonly used applications of FRCs are in removable dentures, minimally invasive fixed dental prostheses, periodontal splints, root canal posts, and orthodontic retainers. This article discusses in detail the applications of FRCs in endodontics, including root canal posts, reinforcement of restorative composites in restorations and core build-ups and splinting of teeth in dental trauma.</p> Sowmya Mudunuri K Madhu Varma R Kalyan Satish Manthena Sita Rama Kumar Jetty Sai Dinesh Pulidindi Anil Kumar Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Dental Materials 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 2 4 122 134 10.37983/IJDM.2020.2404 Occupational Risk Factors and Preventive Measures for COVID-19 In Prosthodontics <p>Today, novel coronavirus infection has become pandemic worldwide. It is the major cause of sickness from the common cold to severe acute respiratory syndrome in individuals. In a dental operatory, infections can be expedited through several routes like aerosol generation, contaminated surfaces, droplet splatter, oral fluids, and direct contact. Keeping in mind about the routes of transmission of COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease-19), dental practitioners are at higher risk of exposure and disease spread. Hence, this review article emphasizes the routes of transmission, risk factors, prophylactic and preventive measures. It also sights on alternative approaches to prosthodontic procedures to reduce the burden of COVID-19 infection in their community. Data acquisition was made using the keywords, COVID-19, infection control, prosthodontic risk factors in electronic databases like PubMed, Medline, ProQuest, etc. A manual search of several journals and books was also carried out, and only highly relevant articles were considered for the present review.</p> Tharuni Thammareddy M Sujesh C Ravikumar Srujana Zakkula Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Dental Materials 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 2 4 135 144 10.37983/IJDM.2020.2405 Effect of silver nanoparticles incorporation on microhardness of Heat-cure denture base resins <p><strong>Background: </strong>Poly (Methyl methacrylic acid) based materials are widely used for the fabrication of removable complete and partial denture prosthesis. Regular cleansing of these dentures may abrade the surface due to an inherent lack of adequate surface hardness. This roughness may adhere food to the denture surface, making it dirty and further cause stomatitis. Recently, antimicrobial activity of denture base materials incorporated with silver nanoparticles was studied, that may logically prevent microbial growth on the denture. However, the effect of these nanoparticles on the mechanical properties, which provide longevity to the prosthesis, was not substantiated.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Aim:</strong> This study was designed to evaluate the effect of incorporating various concentrations of silver nanoparticles into heat-cure denture base resin materials, on their surface hardness.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Materials and methods:</strong> Silver nanoparticles were incorporated at various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 wt%) into three different heat-cure denture base materials. A total of 150 rectangular-shaped specimens (62 x 10 x 2.5), which comprises 50 samples from each of the three heat-cure acrylic resins were made using the compression moulding technique. Ten specimens (n=10) were allocated for each concentration such as control, 0.5wt%, 1.0wt%, 2.0wt% and 5.0wt% concentrations of silver nanoparticles. The microhardness was evaluated using the Vickers micro-hardness tester. The data were subjected to One way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests for statistical analyses.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Significant differences (p=0.000) were observed between the unmodified and modified denture base materials.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Silver nanoparticles can be considered as the favourable additives to increase the surface hardness of denture base materials.</p> Rama Krishna Alla Vineeth Guduri N. B. Prakash Tiruveedula Narasimha Rao G Raghavendra Swamy K.N. Ritu Vyas Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Dental Materials 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 2 4 103 110 10.37983/IJDM.2020.2401 Comparative evaluation of gingival displacement using retraction cord impregnated with Astringedent®, Magic foam and Expasyl: an in vivo study <p><strong>Background: </strong>Gingival retraction helps in achieving good quality impressions. These are needed for a precision fit and long-term success with fixed prosthodontic restorations.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficiency of gingival displacement obtained using Expasyl, Magic foam cord and Medicated retraction cord.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>One hundred twenty patients with the requirement of full veneer crowns were selected. They were divided into three groups, forty subjects in each group (twenty subjects by each operator) namely Expasyl, Magic foam cord and Medicated retraction cord. The impressions obtained before and after placing the retraction system were poured with type IV die stone. The casts obtained before and after placing the retraction system were coded in a blind fashion to avoid the influence of the operator. The casts were viewed under tool maker microscope “10X” magnification for the amount of both depth and width of gingival displacement.</p> <p> <strong>Results: </strong>Mesial, distal, mid-buccal, mid-lingual were taken as reference points and for Medicated retraction cord, Expasyl and Magic foam cord the mean values are 0.50mm, 0.49mm and 0.29mm respectively in horizontal displacement and 0.56mm, 0.47mm and 0.31mm respectively in vertical displacement. One way ANOVA was used to calculate the p-value and multiple range test by the Tukey-HSD analysis to identify significant groups at 5% level. The level of significance for all tests was set as p &lt; 0.05.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Within the limitations of this study, Magic foam cord showed the ease of placement followed by Expasyl retraction system and Medicated retraction cord.</p> <p><strong>Clinical significance:</strong> Gingival retraction helps in achieving good quality impressions. These are needed for a precision fit and long-term success with fixed prosthodontic restorations. Selecting techniques and materials that produce transient retraction and dry field without irreversible damages to the tissues is of utmost importance.</p> Chandrasekhar Nakka Haritha Mikkilineni Soujanya Kollipara Kothuri N Ravalika Mahendranath Reddy K Jagadeesh Konchada Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Dental Materials 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 2 4 111 116 10.37983/IJDM.2020.2402 Evaluation of translucency of two types of glass-ceramics with different thickness: an in vitro study <p><strong>Background: </strong>Veneered all-ceramic restorations are associated with a high incidence of chipping and veneer delamination from the inner core. Monolithic all-ceramic crowns facilitate the fabrication process and minimize residual stresses between core and veneer. A new material, zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZRL), Celtra Duo was recently introduced for the fabrication of monolithic anterior crowns to overcome the aesthetic drawbacks of traditional zirconia and also to improve the strength of the lithium disilicate.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: This study aimed to evaluate and compare the translucency of CAD/CAM zirconia reinforced lithium disilicate ceramic and Lithium silicate glass-ceramic at a different thickness.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: CAD/CAM Lithium Silicate glass-ceramic (e.max CAD) and CAD/CAM ZLS Celtra Duo ceramic materials were used in the study. A total of forty Disc-shaped ceramic specimens (n=40), which comprises 20 from each ceramic material (n=20) were fabricated. The twenty specimens from each material group were divided into four subgroups with five specimens each (n=5) with a thickness of 1.0 mm, 1.2 mm, 1.5 mm and 2.0 mm, respectively. All the specimens were thermo-cycled to simulate one-year clinical service followed by analyzing the degree of translucency using spectrophotometer. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis using the student t-test and post-hoc pair-wise comparisons.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A decrease in translucency with an increase in the thickness of the ceramic specimens was observed. Significant differences were observed between the ceramic materials except at 1.5 mm thickness (p=0.621).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Both the ceramic materials displayed decreased in their translucency with the increase in the thickness. The glazed Celtra Duo has demonstrated relatively more translucency than e.max CAD ceramic at all thicknesses.</p> Mostafa Ashraf Eladawy Mostafa Ragab Monir Gamal Amir Azer Youssef Ashour Mohamed Taha Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Dental Materials 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 2 4 117 121 10.37983/IJDM.2020.2403