Background: The quest for newer and stronger materials for replacing teeth has resulted in Zirconium oxide's introduction, which possesses excellent mechanical strength and toughness. However, uncertainty exists in the relationship between its bond strength and surface treatment method adopted and the mode of failure at the interface.
Aim - The study aimed to evaluate the comparison of micro-tensile bond strength between the zirconia core and all-ceramic layering with different surface treatments and analyse their failure mode by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).
Materials and methods: Zirconia cores (Ceramill ZI 71 XS) were fabricated by CAD-CAM into discs with 5mm diameter and 3.5mm height. Then the cores were divided into four groups. Among which, Group-I was the control group, and the remaining are surface treated. Group-II specimens were treated with sandblasting, followed by acid etching; Group-III and Group-IV were treated with zirliner and glass beads, respectively. After that, the veneering material (IPS Empress, E.max Ceram Dentin) of 2×2 mm was adhered to the zirconia core and then kept in the ceramic furnace. The specimens were mounted on a Universal Testing Machine, and tensile stress is applied. The obtained data were subjected to One-way ANOVA and Tukey-HSD tests for statistical analyses.
Results - The samples treated with sandblasting followed by acid etching showed more micro-tensile bond strength between core and veneer interface. Furthermore, the SEM study revealed a cohesive failure in Group-II, whereas, in Group-I and -III, there was an adhesive failure. Group-IV specimens exhibited a mixed failure. One-way ANOVA showed significant differences (p=0.001) within the groups. In posthoc analysis, Group-III showed significant differences with Groups -I, II, and IV.
Conclusion: Increased surface roughness of zirconia obtained by sandblasting with aluminium oxide particles, when coupled along with chemical etching with hydrofluoric acid, enhanced the micro-tensile bond strength between the Y-TZP zirconia core and veneering ceramic.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- Heartwell CM, O’Rahn A. Textbook of complete dentures. Hamilton, Ont.: BC Decker Incorporated; 2002.
- Denry I, Holloway JA. Ceramics for dental applications: a review. Materials, 2010;3(1):351-68. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma3010351
- Griggs JA. Recent advances in materials for all-ceramic restorations. Dent Clin North Am. 2007;51(3):713-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cden.2007.04.006
- Dong JK, Luthy H, Wohlwend A, Schärer P. Heat-pressed ceramics: technology and strength. Int J Prosthodont. 1992;5(1): 9-16.
- Payal. Exploring Best Fit-Dental Materials for CAD/CAM. Int J Dent Mater. 2020;2(2):45-51. https://doi.org/10.37983/IJDM.2020.2203
- Babu PJ, Alla RK, Alluri VR, Datla SR, Konakanchi A. Dental ceramics: Part I–An overview of composition, structure and properties. Am J Mater Eng Technol. 2015;3(1):13-8.
- Datla SR, Alla RK, Alluri VR, Babu JP, Konakanchi A. Dental ceramics: Part II-Recent advances in dental ceramics. Am J Mater Eng Technol. 2015;3(2):19-26.
- Benetti P, Della Bona A, Kelly JR. Evaluation of thermal compatibility between core and veneer dental ceramics using shear bond strength test and contact angle measurement. Dent Mater. 2010;26(8): 743-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2010.03.019
- Al-Dohan HM, Yaman P, Dennison JB, Razzoog ME, Lang BR. Shear strength of core-veneer interface in bi-layered ceramics. J Prosthet Dent. 2004;91(4):349-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2004.02.009
- Messer PF, Piddock V, Lloyd CH. The strength of dental ceramics. J Dent. 1991;19(1):51-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-5712(91)90040-6
- Anusavice KJ, Shen C, Rawls HR, editors. Phillips' Science of Dental Materials. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2012 Sep 27.
- Alla RK. Dental Materials Science, India: Jaypee Medical Publishers (P) Ltd., 2013. https://doi.org/10.5005/jp/books/12018
- Kwon TK, Pak HS, Yang JH, Han JS, Lee JB, Kim SH, Yeo IS. Comparative fracture strength analysis of Lava and Digident CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic crowns. J Adv Prosthodont. 2013;5(2):92-7. https://doi.org/10.4047/jap.2013.5.2.92
- De Jager N, Pallav P, Feilzer AJ. The influence of design parameters on the FEA-determined stress distribution in CAD–CAM produced all-ceramic dental crowns. Dent Mater. 2005;21(3):242-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2004.03.013
- Luthardt RG, Sandkuhl O, Reitz B. Zirconia-TZP and alumina--advanced technologies for the manufacturing of single crowns. Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent. 1999;7(4):113-9.
- Kosma? T, Oblak C, Jevnikar P, Funduk N, Marion L. The effect of surface grinding and sandblasting on flexural strength and reliability of Y-TZP zirconia ceramic. Dent Mater. 1999;15(6):426-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0109-5641(99)00070-6
- Aboushelib MN, de Jager N, Kleverlaan CJ, Feilzer AJ. Microtensile bond strength of different components of core veneered all-ceramic restorations. Dent Mater. 2005 Oct;21(10):984-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2005.03.013
- Obradovi?-?uri?i? K, Medi? V, Dodi? S, Gavrilov D, Antonijevi? ?, Zrili? M. Dilemmas in zirconia bonding: A review. Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo. 2013;141(5-6):395-401. https://doi.org/10.2298/SARH1306395O
- Dündar M, Özcan M, Gökçe B, Çömleko?lu E, Leite F, Valandro LF. Comparison of two bond strength testing methodologies for bilayered all-ceramics. Dent Mater. 2007; 23(5):630-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2006.05.004
- Harding AB, Norling BK, Teixeira EC. The effect of surface treatment of the interfacial surface on fatigue-related microtensile bond strength of milled zirconia to veneering porcelain. Journal of Prosthodontics: Implant, Esthetic and Reconstructive Dentistry. 2012;21(5):346-52. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-849X.2012.00843.x
- Fischer J, Stawarczyk B, Sailer I, Hämmerle CH. Shear bond strength between veneering ceramics and ceria-stabilized zirconia/alumina. J Prosthet Dent. 2010;103(5):267-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3913(10)60056-X
- Teng J, Wang H, Liao Y, Liang X. Evaluation of a conditioning method to improve core-veneer bond strength of zirconia restorations. J Prosthet Dent. 2012;107(6):380-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3913(12)60095-X
- Aboushelib MN, Feilzer AJ, Kleverlaan CJ. Bonding to zirconia using a new surface treatment. Journal of Prosthodontics: Implant, Esthetic and Reconstructive Dentistry. 2010;19(5):340-6. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-849X.2010.00575.x
- Blatz MB, Sadan A, Kern M. Bonding to silica-based ceramics: clinical and laboratory guidelines. Quintessence Dent Technol. 2002;25:54-62.
- Fleming GJ, El-Lakwah SF, Harris JJ, Marquis PM. The influence of interfacial surface roughness on bilayered ceramic specimen performance. Dent Mater. 2004;20(2):142-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0109-5641(03)00085-X