In the recent past, the demand for adult orthodontic treatment has increased multiple folds. As a repercussion of this stipulation, invisible orthodontic treatment has expanded its horizon. Efforts of using aesthetic brackets, wires, and lingual techniques to meet the expectations of adult patients have been practised. Though these techniques seemed to be promising in the initial days, soon decreased in popularity due to drawbacks associated with them. Clear aligners were offered as a newer and superior aesthetic alternative to overcome the difficulties associated with prior aesthetic approaches. These aligners are made up of different thermoplastic materials intended to move the malpositioned teeth in the desired corrected position following push mechanics. This article deals with new generation orthodontic treatment using aligners. It deals with history, generations, different materials used, and the distances yet to be travelled to become the benchmark and replace the existing conventional braces. This paper also gives a bird’s eye view of the method of aligner fabrication and the significant differences between the regular braces and aligners used in orthodontics.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- Rosvall M.D., Fields H.W., Ziuchkovski J., Rosenstiel S.F., and Johnston W.M. Attractiveness, acceptability, and value of orthodontic appliances. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2009;135(3): 276-e1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2008.09.020
- Hussein Shakir Saleh Al Noor, Sami Kadhum. Al-Joubori. Comparison of the hardness and elastic modulus of different orthodontic aligners' materials. Int J Med Res Pharmaceutic Sci. 2018; 5(9), 19–25. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1443358
- Dasy H, Dasy A, Asatrian G, Rózsa NK, Lee HF, Kwak JH. Effects of variable attachment shapes and aligner material on aligner retention. Angle Orthod. 2015;85(6):934-940. https://doi.org/10.2319/091014-637.1
- Phan X, Ling PH. Clinical limitations of Invisalign. J Can Dent Assoc. 2007;73(3):263-6.
- Sheridan JJ, LeDoux W, McMinn R. Essix retainers: Fabrication and supervision for permanent retention. J Clin Orthod 1993;27:37-45.
- Nahoum HI. The vacuum formed dental contour appliance. NY State Dent J. 1964; 9:385-90
- Ponitz RJ. Invisible retainers. American Journal of Orthodontics;59(3):266-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9416(71)90099-6
- Barone S, Paoli A, Razionale AV, Savignano R. Computational design and engineering of polymeric orthodontic aligners. Int J Numer Method Biomed Eng. 2017; 33(8):e2839. https://doi.org/10.1002/cnm.2839
- Lombardo L, Arreghini A, Maccarrone R, Bianchi A, Scalia S, Siciliani G. Optical properties of orthodontic aligners—spectrophotometry analysis of three types before and after aging. Prog Orthod. 2015 Dec;16(1):1-8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40510-015-0111-z
- Iijima M, Kohda N, Kawaguchi K, et al., Effects of temperature changes and stress loading on the mechanical and shape memory properties of thermoplastic materials with different glass transition behaviours and crystal structures. Eur J Orthod, 2015; 37(6):665–670. https://doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cjv013
- Latko-Dura?ek P, Dydek K, Boczkowska A. Thermal, Rheological and Mechanical Properties of PETG/rPETG Blends. J Polym Environ. 2019; 27, 2600–2606. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10924-019-01544-6
- Laurence W. McKeen,6 - Polyester Plastics, Editor(s): Laurence W. McKeen,In Plastics Design Library, Permeability Properties of Plastics and Elastomers (Fourth Edition), William Andrew Publishing, USA, 2017, Pages 95-114. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-50859-9.00006-3
- Lanaro M, Booth L, Powell SK, Woodruff MA. Electrofluidodynamic technologies for biomaterials and medical devices: melt electrospinning. In Electrofluidodynamic Technologies (EFDTs) for Biomaterials and Medical Devices 2018 Jan 1 (pp. 37-69). Woodhead Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-101745-6.00003-7
- Hassan MH, Omar AM, Daskalakis E, Hou Y, Huang B, Strashnov I, Grieve BD, Bártolo P. The Potential of Polyethylene Terephthalate Glycol as Biomaterial for Bone Tissue Engineering. Polymers. 2020;12(12):3045. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12123045
- Hennessy J, Al-Awadhi EA. Clear aligners generations and orthodontic tooth movement. J Orthod. 2016; 43: 68-76. https://doi.org/10.1179/1465313315Y.0000000004
- Kulshrestha R. Clear Aligners vs Fixed Orthodontic Treatment - Where are we now? J Dent & Oral Disord. 2017; 3(6): 1076. https://doi.org/10.26420/jdentoraldisord.2017.1076
- Joffe L. Invisalign: early experiences. J Orthod. 2003 Dec;30(4):348-52. https://doi.org/10.1093/ortho/30.4.348
- Miller KB, McGorray SP, Womack R, Quintero JC, Perelmuter M, Gibson J, et al. A comparison of treatment impacts between Invisalign aligner and fixed appliance therapy during the first week of treatment. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2007; 131: 302 e301- e309. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2006.05.031
- Fujiyama K, Honjo T, Suzuki M, Matsuoka S, Deguchi T. Analysis of pain level in cases treated with Invisalign aligner: comparison with fixed edgewise appliance therapy. Prog Orthod. 2014; 15: 64. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40510-014-0064-7
- Liu CL1, Sun WT1, Liao W1, Lu WX1, Li QW1, Jeong Y1, Liu J1, Zhao ZH. Colour stabilities of three types of orthodontic clear aligners exposed to staining agents. Int J Oral Sci. 2016 Dec 16;8(4):246-253. https://doi.org/10.1038/ijos.2016.25
- Gracco A, et al. Short-term chemical and physical changes in invisalign appliances. Aust Orthod J. 2009 May;25(1):34-40.
- Dalaie K, Ghaffari S. Importance of Attachments in Treatment with Clear Aligners: A Narrative Review. Journal of Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. 2020;38(1):41-6.