Fluoride compounds are incorporated as anticariogenic agents in numerous restorative materials. Incorporation of fluoride into restorative materials impart anticariogenic character by various mechanisms including reduction of demineralisation, enhancement of remineralisation, interference of pellicle and plaque and inhibition of microbial growth and metabolism. In addition, the application of the topical fluoride in the form of toothpaste and varnish is also considered as the most effective method of caries prevention. The fluoride combines with HA of the tooth and forms an acid-resistant fluorapatite (FAP) crystals. Also, fluoride enters into the cells of the bacteria and inhibits carbohydrate metabolism, which eventually kills the bacteria. The objective of this review was to emphasise the fluoride-releasing restorative materials available in dentistry.
1. Brown LJ, Winn DM, White BA, Dental caries, restorations and tooth conditions in U.S. adults, 1988-1991. J Am Dent Assoc 127:1315-25, 1996.
2. Featherstone JDB, Prevention and reversal of dental caries: role of low level fluoride. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 27:31-40, 1999.
3. Kidd EAM, Caries management. Dental Clinics North America 43:743-63, 1999.
4. Evans CA, Kleinman DV, The surgeon general’s report on America’s oral health: opportunities for the dental profession. J Am Dent Assoc 131:1721-8, 2000.
5. Featherstone JDB, The science and practice of caries prevention. J Am Dent Assoc 131:887-99, 2000.
6. Warren JJ, Cowen HJ et al, Dental caries prevalence and dental care utilization among the very old. J Am Dent Assoc 131:1571-9, 2000.
7. Lamont RJ, Egland PG. Dental Caries (in) Molecular Medical Microbiology. Academic Press, 2nd Edition, 2015:945-955.
8. Ji W, Yang F, Ma J, et al. Biomaterials Incorporation of stromal cell-derived factor-1 a in PCL/gelatin electrospun membranes for guided bone regeneration. Biomaterials. 2013;34(3):735–745.
9. Shepherd TJ, Dirks W, Manmee C, et al. Reconstructing the life-time lead exposure in children using dentine in deciduous teeth. Sci Total Environ. 2012;425:214–222.
10. Vanderby R, Provenzano PP. Collagen in connective tissue: from tendon to bone. J Biomech. 2003;36(10):1523–1527.
11. Ren YF. Dental erosion: etiology, diagnosis and prevention. Dental Hygenist. 2011:75–84.
12. Scaramucci T, Carvalho JC, Hara AT, Zero DT. Causes of Dental Erosion: Extrinsic Factors. Berlin: Springer International Publishing; 2015:69–96.
13. Barbour ME, Finke M, Parker DM, Hughes JA, Allen GC, Addy M. The relationship between enamel softening and erosion caused by soft drinks at a range of temperatures. J Dent. 2006;34(3):207–213.
14. Meredith N, Sherriff M, Setchell DJ, Swanson SA. Measurement of the microhardness and young’s modulus of human enamel and dentine using an indentation technique. Arch Oral Biol. 1996;41(6):539–545.
15. Belen ?irino?lu Çapan, Serap Akyüz. Current Fluoride-releasing Restorative Materials Used in Pediatric Dentistry. Clin Exp Health Sci 2016; 6(3): 129-134.
16. Featherstone JD, Lussi A. Understanding the chemistry of dental erosion. Monogr Oral Sci. 2006;20:66–76.
17. Dowd F. Saliva and dental caries. Dent Clin North Am. 1999;43(4): 579–597.
18. RK Alla. Dental Materials Science. 1st Edition, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India 2013; 91-129.
19. Anusavice KJ. Philips Science of Dental Materials.11th Edition, Elsevier, India, 2010; 471-486
20. Sita Ramaraju DV, Rama Krishna Alla, Venkata Ramaraju Alluri, Raju MAKV. A Review of Conventional and Contemporary Luting Agents Used in Dentistry. Am J Mater Sci Eng. 2014;2(3): 28-35
21. Lee SY, Dong DR, Huang HM, Shih YH. Fluoride ion diffusion from a glass-ionomer cement. J Oral Rehabil 2000;27:576–86.
22. Williams JA, Billington RW, Pearson GJ. A long term study of fluoride release from metal-containing conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements. J Oral Rehabil 2001;28:41–7.
23. Dhondt CL, De Maeyer EA, Verbeeck RM. Fluoride release from glass ionomer activated with fluoride solutions. J Dent Res 2001;80:1402–6.
24. Creanor SL, Carruthers LM, Saunders WP, Strang R, Foye RH. Fluoride uptake and release characteristics of glass ionomer cements. Caries Res 1994;28:322–8.
25. Attar N, Onen A. Fluoride release and uptake characteristics of aesthetic restorative materials. J Oral Rehabil 2002;29:791–8.
26. Yap AU, Tham SY, Zhu LY, Lee HK. Short-term fluoride release from various aesthetic restorative materials. Oper Dent 2002;27:259–65.
27. Attar N, Turgut MD. Fluoride release and uptake capacities of fluoride-releasing restorative materials. Oper Dent 2003;28:395–402.
28. Bell A, Creanor SL, Foye RH, Saunders WP. The effect of saliva on fluoride release by a glass-ionomer filling material. J Oral Rehabil 1999;26:407–12.
29. Williams JA, Billington RW, Pearson GJ. A long term study of fluoride release from metal-containing conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements. J Oral Rehabil 2001;28:41–7.
30. Yli-Urpo H, Vallittu PK, Narhi TO, Forsback AP, Vakiparta M. Release of silica, calcium, phosphorus, and fluoride from glass ionomer cement containing bioactive glass. J Biomater Appl 2004;19:5–20.
31. Preston AJ, Mair LH, Agalamanyi EA, Higham SM. Fluoride release from aesthetic dental materials. J Oral Rehabil 1999;26:123–9.
32. DeSchepper EJ, Berr III EA, Cailleteau JG, Tate WH. A comparative study of fluoride release from glass-ionomer cements. Quintessence Int 1991;22:215–9.
33. De Moor RJ, Verbeeck RM, De Maeyer EA. Fluoride release profiles of restorative glass ionomer formulations. Dent Mater 1996;12:88–95.
34. Williams JA, Billington RW, Pearson G. Silver and fluoride ion release from metal-reinforced glass-ionomer filling materials. J Oral Rehabil 1997;24:369–75.
35. el Mallakh BF, Sarkar NK. Fluoride release from glass-ionomer cements in de-ionized water and artificial saliva. Dent Mater 1990;6:118–22.
36. de Araujo FB, Garcia-Godoy F, Cury JA, Conceicao EN. Fluoride release from fluoride-containing materials. Oper Dent 1996;21:185–90.
37. Karantakis P, Helvatjoglou-Antoniades M,Theodoridou-Pahini S, Papadogiannis Y. Fluoride release from three glass ionomers, a compomer, and a composite resin in water, artificial saliva, and lactic acid. Oper Dent 2000;25:20–5.
38. Hayacibara MF, Ambrozano GM, Cury JA. Simultaneous release of fluoride and aluminum from dental materials in various immersion media. Oper Dent 2004;29: 16–22.
39. Yip HK, Smales RJ. Fluoride release from a polyacid-modified resin composite and 3 resin-modified glass-ionomer materials. Quintessence Int 2000;31: 261–6.
40. Vermeersch G, Leloup G, Vreven J. Fluoride release from glass-ionomer cements, compomers and resin composites. J Oral Rehabil 2001;28:26–32.
41. Muller U, Kielbassa AM, Schulte-Mo¨nting J, Hellwig E. Fluoride release from light-curing restorative materials. Am J Dent 2000;13:301–4.
42. Abu-Bakr NH, Han L, Okamoto A, Iwaku M. Effect of alcoholic and low-pH soft drinks on fluoride release from compomer. J Esthet Dent 2000;12:97–104.
43. Vercruysse CW, De Maeyer EA, Verbeeck RM. Fluoride release of polyacid-modified composite resins with and without bonding agents. Dent Mater 2001;17: 354–8.
44. Sales D, Sae-Lee D, Matsuya S, Ana ID. Short-term fluoride and cations release from polyacid-modified composites in a distilled water, and an acidic lactate buffer. Biomaterials
45. Itota T, Carrick TE, Yoshiyama M, McCabe JF. Fluoride release and recharge in giomer, compomer and resin composite. Dent Mater 2004;20:789–95.
46. Ravi RK, Alla RK, Mohammad S, Devarhubli A, Dental Composites - A Versatile Restorative Material: An Overview. Ind J Dent Sci. 2013; 5(5): 111-5.
47. Konakanchi A, Alla RK, Guduri V. Coupling agents: Benevolant bindersin composites. Trends Biomatr Artif Organs. 2017; 31(3): 102-7.
48. Lavnya D, Divya B, Mantena SR, Madhu Varma K, Bheemalingeswara Rao D, Chandrap-pa V. Recent Advances in Dental Composites: An Overview. Int J Dent Mater 2019;1(2): 48-54.
49. Xu X, Burgess JO. Compressive strength, fluoride release and recharge of fluoride-releasing materials. Biomaterials 2003;24:2451–61.
50. Xu HH, Eichmiller FC, Antonucci JM, Flaim GM. Single-crystalline ceramic whisker-reinforced carboxylic acid–resin composites with fluoride release. Oper Dent 2000;25:90–7.
51. Xu HH, Eichmiller FC, Antonucci JM, Schumacher GE, Ives LK. Dental resin composites containing ceramic whiskers and precured glass ionomer particles. Dent Mater 2000;16:356–63.
52. Preston AJ, Agalamanyi EA, Higham SM, Mair LH. The recharge of esthetic dental restorative materials with fluoride in vitro—two years’ results. Dent Mater 2003;19:32–7.
53. Tveit AB, Gjerdet NR. Fluoride release from a fluoride-containing amalgam, a glass ionomer cement and a silicate cement in artificial saliva. J Oral Rehabil 1981;8:237–41.
54. Garcia-Godoy F, Olsen BT, Marshall TD, Barnwell GM. Fluoride release from amalgam restorations lined with a silver-reinforced glass ionomer. Am J Dent 1990;3: 94–6.
55. Garcia-Godoy F, Chan DC. Long-term fluoride release from glass ionomer-lined amalgam restorations. Am J Dent 1991;4:223–5.