Osseointegration is the key for long term success of endosseous dental implants. Implant surface properties like surface roughness, surface topography, surface energy and surface composition are the major characters that influence the process of osseointegration. Several methods have been used to optimise implant surface roughness to increase surface area thereby improving the process of osseointegration. Blasting using alumina and titanium dioxide, acid treatment, anodization, and laser peeling are some of the subtractive methods used to optimize implant surface roughness. Additive methods used to coat HA onto the surface of endosseous implants include plasma sprayed HA, vacuum deposition technique, sol-gel and dip coating method, electrolytic process and nano-HA coating. Recently, biomimetic implant surfaces are produced with calcium phosphate coatings under physiological conditions. These coatings are also capable to act as vehicles for osteogenic agents like BMPs, GDFs and biologically active drugs like bisphosphonates, gentamicin, tetracycline, etc.,. The methods used for surface modifications of endosseous dental implants are vast and continuously evolving with the recently developed technologies. This article gives an overview on various surface modifications and current trends followed in the field oral implantology.