Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: an overview of composition, properties and clinical applications
Keywords:MTA, Ca(OH)2, Portland cement, Fillapex
“Mineral trioxide aggregate” is a cementitious material, which is popular by its trade name MTA. It was first introduced in the year 1993 by Mohmoud Torabinejad at Loma Linda University in California, USA. MTA is a powder mixture of Portland cement clinker, bismuth oxide, and gypsum. It has gained a lot of importance in dentistry in recent years. This importance is because of its extensive use as apical restorative material as well as a medicament for Apexogenesis and Apexification treatment. As it sets by hydration process, the byproducts of insoluble calcium silicate hydrate and alkaline calcium hydroxide offer unique stability and potential to enhance hard tissue regeneration. This article reviewed the composition, types, properties of MTA and also its applications in the practice of dentistry.
2. Schmitt D, Lee J, Bogen G. Multifaceted use of ProRoot MTA root canal repair material. Pediatr Dent. 2001; 23: 326-330.
3. Srinivasan V, Waterhouse P, Whitworth J. Mineral trioxide aggregate in paediatric dentistry. Int J Pediatr Dent 2009;19:34-47.
4. Casella G, Ferlito S. The use of mineral trioxide aggregate in endodontics. Minerva Stomatol. 2006; 55: 123-143.
5. Torabinejad M, Hong CU, McDonald F, Ford TR. Physical and chemical properties of a new root-end filling material. J Endod. 1995; 21: 349-353.
6. Parirokh M, Torabinejad M. Mineral trioxide aggregate: a comprehensive literature review-Part I: chemical, physical, and antibacterial properties. J Endod. 2010; 36: 16-27.
7. Kratchman SI. Perforation repair and one-step apexification procedures. Dent Clin North Am. 2004; 48: 291-307.
8. Camilleri J. Staining potential of Neo MTA Plus, MTA Plus, and biodentine used for pulpotomy procedures. J Endod. 2015; 41: 1139-1145.
9. Camilleri J. Hydration characteristics of Biodentine and Theracal used as pulp capping materials. Dent Mater. 2014; 30: 709-715.
10. Khan J, El-Housseiny A, Alamoudi N. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Use in Pediatric Dentistry: A Literature Review. J Oral Hyg Health. 2016; 4: 209.
11. Camilleri J, Pitt Ford TR. Mineral trioxide aggregate: a review of the constituents and biological properties of the material. Int Endod J. 2006; 39: 747-754.
12. Camilleri J, Montesin FE, Brady K, Sweeney R, Curtis RV, et al. The constitution of mineral trioxide aggregate. Dent Mater. 2005; 21: 297-303.
13. Torabinejad M, Watson TF, Pitt Ford TR. Sealing ability of a mineral trioxide aggregate when used as a root end filling material. J Endod. 1993; 19: 591-595.
14. Macwan C, Deshpande A. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in dentistry: A review of literature. J Oral Res Rev. 2014; 6: 71-74.
15. Arruda RA, Cunha RS, Miguita KB, Silveira CF, De Martin AS, et al. Sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) combined with distilled water, chlorhexidine, and doxycycline. J Oral Sci. 2012; 54: 233-239.
16. Srinivasan V, Waterhouse P, Whitworth J. Mineral trioxide aggregate in paediatric dentistry. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2009; 19: 34-47.
17. Steinig TH, Regan JD, Gutmann JL. The use and predictable placement of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate in one-visit apexification cases. Aust Endod J. 2003; 29: 34-42.
18. Kogan P, He J, Glickman GN, Watanabe I. The effects of various additives on setting properties of MTA. J Endod. 2006; 32: 569-572.
19. Prasad A, Pushpa S, Arunagiri D, Sawhny A, Misra A, et al. A comparative evaluation of the effect of various additives on selected physical properties of white mineral trioxide aggregate. J Conserv Dent. 2015; 18: 237-241.
20. Sluyk S, Moon P, Hartwell G. Evaluation of setting properties and retention characteristics of mineral trioxide aggregate when used as a furcation perforation repair material. J Endod. 1998; 24: 768-771.
21. Ding SJ, Kao CT, Shie MY, Hung C Jr, Huang TH. The physical and cytological properties of white MTA mixed with Na2HPO4 as an accelerant. J Endod 2008;34:748-51.
22. Shah PM, Chong BS, Sidhu SK, Pitt Ford TR. Radio opacity of potential root end filling materials. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1996;81:476-9.
23. Budig CG, Eleazer PD. In vitro comparison of the setting of dry ProRoot MTA by moisture absorbed through the root. J Endod 2008;34:712-4.
24. Al-Hezaimi K, Al-Shalan TA, Naghshbandi J, Oglesby S, Simon JH, Rotstein I. Antibacterial effect of two mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) preparations against Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus sanguis in vitro. J Endod 2006;32:1053-6.
25. Sumer M, Muglali M, Bodrumlu E, Guvenic T. Reactions of connective tissue to amalgam, intermediate restorative material, mineral trioxide aggregate mixed with chlorhexidine. J Endod 2006;32:1094-6.
26. Kettering JD, Torabinejad M. Investigation of mutagenicity of mineral trioxide aggregate and other commonly used root-end filling materials. J Endod 1995;21:537-42.
27. Valois CR, Costa ED Jr. Influence of the thickness of mineral trioxide aggregate on sealing ability of root-end filling in vitro. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endo 2004;97:108-11.
28. Holland R, de Souza V, Nery MJ, Otoboni Filho JA, Bernabé PF, Dezan Júnior E. Reaction of dogs’ teeth to root canal filling with mineral trioxide aggregate or a glass ionomer sealer. J Endod 1999;25:728-30.
29. Faraco IM Jr, Holland R. Response of the pulp of dogs to capping with mineral trioxide aggregate or a calcium hydroxide cement. Dent Traumatol 2001;17:163-6.
30. Dominguez MS, Witherspoon DE, Gutmann JL, Opperman LA. Histological and scanning electron microscopy assessment of various vital pulp-therapy materials. J Endod 2003;29:324-33.
31. Tziafas D, Pantelidou O, Alvanou A, Belibasakis G, Papadimitriou S. The dentinogenic effect of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in short term capping experiments. Int Endod J 2002;35:245 54.
32. Nandini S, Ballal S, Kandaswamy D. Influence of glass Ionomer cement on the interface and setting reaction of mineral trioxide aggregate when used as a furcal repair material using laser Raman spectroscopic analysis. J Endod 2007;33:167-72.
33. Torabinejad M, Chivian N. Clinical applications of mineral trioxide aggregate. J Endod. 1999;25(3):197–205.
34. Hedge R, Battepati. Clinical applications of MTA: report of four cases. Int J Clin Pediat Dent. 2010; 3(1):43-50.
35. Torabinejad M, Pitt Ford TR, McKendry DJ, Abedi HR, Miller DA, Kariyawasam SP. Histologic assessment of mineral trioxide aggregate as a root-end filling in monkeys. J Endod. 1997;23(4):225–228.
36. Simon S, Rilliard F, Berdal A, Machtou P, Simon S , Rilliard F , Berdal A , Machtou P. The use of mineral trioxide aggregate in one-visit apexification treatment: a prospective study. Int Endodont J. 2007;40:186-197.
37. El-Meligy OA, Avery DR. Comparison of apexification with mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide. Pediatr Dent. 2006; 28: 248-53.
38. Pitt Ford TR, Torabinejad M, Hong CU, Kariyawasam SP. Use of mineral trioxide aggregate for repair of furcal perforations. Oral Surg 1995;79;756-63.
39. Sarris S, Tahmassebi JF, Duggal MS, Cross IA. A clinical evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate for root-end closure of non-vital immature permanent incisors in children-a pilot study. Dent Traumatol. 2008; 24: 79-85.
40. Bramante CM, Menezes R, Moraes IG, Bernardinelli N, Garcia RB, et al. Use of MTA and intracanal post reinforcement in a horizontally fractured tooth: a case report. Dent Traumatol. 2006; 22: 275-278.
41. Erdem AP, Ozdas DO, Dincol E, Sepet E, Aren G. Case series: Root healing with MTA after horizontal fracture. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2009; 10:110-113.
42. Yildirim T, Gencoglu N. Use of mineral trioxide aggregate in the treatment of horizontal root fractures with a 5-year follow-up: report of a case. J Endod. 2009; 35: 292-295.
43. Sheikh-Nezami M, Mokhber N, Shamsian K, Saket S. Management of a mid-root and complicated crown fracture: A case report. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009; 107: e65-67.
44. Roig M, Espona J, Mercade M, Duran-Sindreu F. Horizontal root fracture treated with MTA, a case report with a 10-year follow-up. Dent Traumatol. 2011; 27: 460-463.
45. Kim S, Kratchman S. Modern endodontic surgery concepts and practice: A review. J Endod. 2006; 32: 601-623.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.